Metallic, opaque, gray-black, black or red-brown in color, hematite can be found in North and South America, Australia, Asia and in some parts of Europe (in the Czech Republic there are rather less important deposits); on the island of Elba, already the Etruscans benefited from it. NASA has even found it on Mars. It is an important iron ore (contents up to 70% iron, its chemical formula is Fe2O3 – iron oxide) and it is a mineral pigment. The name comes from Greek word for “blood” because of red colour of hematite powder. Its hydrated form is observed in form of rust, hematite often gives a reddish color to soils. In prehistory, people used hematite as red chalk, the first such use is estimated at more than 160,000 years ago (archaeological site Pinnacle Point in South Africa); quarries were found in Poland (Rydno) and Hungary (Lovas) from period around 5000 BC. Exceptional finding from Ostrava is called Petřkovická (Landecká) Venus (in Czech – “venuše”), 4.6 cm tall headless torso carved from hematite, about 23,000 years old. A cylindrical seal was found in Cyprus from about 14th century BC, however hematite was known to other ancient nations as well. The Celts and the Slavs demonstrably used hematite as a source of iron. In the Victorian era, this stone was very popular, eg. for intaglios and mourning jewelry. Use for treatment is very broad, far not only related to blood problems and iron absorption.